DISCUSSION: Petadolex is a standardized extract of Petasites hybridus which uses an exclusive methodology to extract the key bioactive compounds Petasin and Isopetasin from the root of the plant, while eliminating the toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids that are naturally present in all parts of butterburr. Research supports the ability of this extract to support healthy blood vessel tone in the neck and brain.
Serving Size: 1 Softgel
Extract of Petasites hybridus (Butterburr (root)) Standardized for at least 7.5mg of Petasin and Isopetasin ... 50mg
Other ingredients: riboflavin (coloring), glycerol, gelatin, sorbitol, titanium dioxide. Capsule: gelatin, water.
AOR guarantees that no ingredients not listed on the label have been added to the product. Contains no wheat, gluten, corn, nuts, dairy, soy, eggs, fish or shellfish.
Take one capsule three times daily with meals for 4 weeks. Thereafter, one capsule twice a day for three months. If necessary increases to one capsule three times daily. Children ages 10 to 12 years old take one capsule twice daily with meals for four months, or as directed by a qualified health practitioner.
* Migraine headaches.
* Normal blood vessel tone in the neck and brain.
Pregnancy / Nursing
If you are pregnant or nursing do not use this product.
Petasites hybridus (butterbur) is a perennial shrub found throughout Europe as well as in parts of Asia and North America. It was used during the Middle Ages to treat the dreaded plague and fever, and in the 17th century its use was noted in treating cough, asthma, and skin wounds. The plant can grow to a height of three feet and is usually found in marshes, damp forests, and adjacent to riverbeds or streams. Its leaves can attain a diameter of three feet, making it the largest of all indigenous floras. Currently, the primary therapeutic uses for butterbur are for prophylactic treatment of migraines, and as an antispasmodic agent for chronic cough, asthma, and allergies. It has also been used successfully in preventing gastric ulcers and in treating patients with irritable bladder and urinary tract spasms.
The family of active ingredients that are found in petasides are called sesquiterpenes, and there are 14 identifiably distinct sesquiterpenes to be found in the rhizomes, roots, runners, buds, leaves and stalks of the butterbur plant. Of these, six have been isolated as having the most important biochemical functions - isopetasin 1b, neopetasin 2b, petasin 3b, iso-S-petasin 1f, neo-S-petasin 2f and S-petasin 3D. The subterranean parts of the plant have abundant amounts of all sesquiterpenes with the exception of isopetasin 1b, which is found in higher concentrations in the leaves. Petasin 3b has been determined to possess the highest concentration of antispasmodic activity by far. Petasin 3b not only inhibits spasms in smooth muscle and vascular walls, but it also possesses the anti-inflammatory capability to inhibit leukotriene synthesis. The isopetasins seem to offer a protective role for prostaglandin biosynthesis, which is an important mediator in the inflammation process.
Mechanism of Action
Butterbur extracts are primarily known for the treatment of three clusters of conditions: migraines; allergy/asthma/bronchitis; and gastro-intestinal disorders. All three are dependent on the anti-inflammatory and anti-spasmodic effects of butterbur. The former is arguably paramount, and what makes butterbur so unique is that it seems to suppress leukotriene production without impeding the biosynthesis of the more constructive` eicosanoids, especially prostaglandins. There are two hypotheses for this. The first is that since prostaglandins are cyclooxygenase-derived and leukotrienes are 5-lipooxygenase-derived, then butterbur extract directly inhibits 5-lipoxygenase. The second hypothesis is based on calcium. Leukotriene biosynthesis is dependent on calcium ions and prostaglandin biosynthesis is not. Therefore, butterbur may be able to reduce the availability of calcium ions necessary for the leukotriene production process. It is believed that the isopetasins are primarily responsible for butterbur`s anti-inflammatory functions. The mechanism of action for the antispasmodic capability of butterbur has not been examined quite as concisely. The most astute explanation is that the bioactive petasins bind to the histamine-H1 receptor, which is a mediator of smooth muscle contraction.
Butterbur extract is the type of supplement that exerts profound, physiologically altering effects but does so in a subtle fashion that requires sustained supplementation for longer periods of time. The most prominent studies were in fact 12 weeks long, and they were double-blind and placebo-controlled involving 128 subjects. The studies demonstrated butterbur`s effectiveness for migraine prophylaxis, with patients experiencing as much as a 60% drop in frequency of migraine attacks compared to the placebo group. Other improvements in the petasites group included a reduction in the duration and intensity of such attacks, as well as a decrease in migraine-associated symptoms.
A 1998 Polish study examined the influence of petasites on lung ventilation and bronchial reactivity in patients suffering from asthma or bronchitis. Not only did the patients receiving petasites exhibit a decrease in bronchial reactivity, but those who were not concurrently prescribed corticosteroids actually had the most pronounced results. This indicates that butterbur might improve lung ventilation in patients with asthma or bronchitis. Another study demonstrated that petasites compare favourably with the drug cetirizine in treating seasonal allergic rhinitis without the sedative effects associated with this and other antihistamines.
Extracts of petasites hybridus were found to be capable of blocking ethanol-induced gastric damage and reducing ulcerations of the small intestine caused by indomethacin, an anti-inflammatory drug used to treat arthritic conditions. These results (from a German study in 1993) were attributed to the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity and leukotriene biosynthesis.
Reports of side effects from petasites extracts have been extremely sporadic. The butterbur plant`s pyrrolizidine alkaloids are thought to potentially cause hepatic damage and be carcinogenic in animals; however, extracts are commercially available in which the pyrrolizidine alkaloids have been removed. In fact, the German pharmaceutical giant Weber & Weber have a patented procedure to remove these alkaloids in their own finished butterbur extract known as Petadolex.TM There are no known interactions with either pharmaceutical or over-the-counter anti-inflammatory agents; however, the use of petasites extracts during pregnancy and lactation is discouraged for lack of study.
Typically, petasites extracts are standardized to contain a minimum of 7.5 mg of petasin and isopetasin. The adult dosage ranges from 50-100 mg twice daily with meals. When used to treat migraines, four to six months of supplementation along a tapering pattern is recommended. Dosage regimens for asthma and gastrointestinal disorders are as yet undefined, dictating the need for further research.
Debrunner B, Neuenschwander M, Brenneisen R. "Sesquiterpenes of Petasites Hybridus (L.) G.M. et Sch.:distribution of sesquiterpenes over plant organs." Pharmaceutica Acta Helvetiae 70(1995) 167-173.
Brune K, Bickel D, Peskar BA. "Gastro-Protective Effects by Extracts of Petasites Hybridus: The Role of Inhibition of Peptido-Leukotriene Synthesis." Planta Med. 1993 Dec;59(6):494-6.
Thomet OA, Simon HU. "Petasins in the treatment of allergic diseases: Results of preclinical and clinical studies." Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002;129:108-112.
Mauskop A, Grossmann WM, Schmidramsl H. "Petasites hybridus (butterbur root) extract is effective in the prophylaxis of migraines." Results of a randomized, double-blind trial. J Head Face Pain 2000;40:4.
Ziolo G, Samochowiec L. "Study on clinical properties and mechanism of action of Petasites in bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive bronchitis." Pharmaceutica Acta Helvetica 1998;72:359-380.
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